Welcome to Kakariki, Care, Breeding, Diet, Health, Aviaries and Conservation!
Ask Questions, Find Answers and DiscussionsKakariki Member Pics, Mutation/Species IdentificationInformation on Permits, Research Papers etcLinks to Other Sites and InformationYour A/C Details, Messages

     GT Modules
· Home
· Forums
· Recommend Us
· Email Webmaster
Email Webmaster for any problems with Registering, the site and General Enquires
·Link to Us, Details
Set to your default home page· Set Home page


       QuickSearch
Search Forums
for key Words
Advanced Search
 Search  Words

     NZ Conservation            Projects


DoC / NZ Conservation Sites


MOTUIHE PROJECT
New Zealand Conservation Management Group
ZEALANDIA: The Karori Sanctuary Experience
Parrot Society of New Zealand
New Zealand Brown Teal (Pateke)


Kakariki, Care, Breeding, Diet, Health, Aviaries and Conservation: Forums

Kakariki, Care, Breeding, Ecology, and Conservation :: View topic - Ref. Material From Tanygnathus
 Forum FAQForum FAQ    SearchSearch     Log inLog in/Register  

Ref. Material From Tanygnathus

 
Post new topic   Reply to topic    Kakariki, Care, Breeding, Ecology, and Conservation Forum Index -> Kakariki Reference
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
Tanygnathus
Member
Member


Joined: May 09, 2005
Posts: 11

PostPosted: Tue May 10, 2005 7:10 am    Post subject: Reply, pars I

Dear trans-oceanic friends,
I'm Francesco from Italy, and I wish to begin to give a reply to the message above.
In this post I'll elencate some articles about the genus Cyanoramphus, with a brief abstract, or just related to the subject Cyanoramphus.

Title: Foraging ecology of the red-crowned parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae novaezelandiae) and yellow-crowned parakeet (C-auriceps auriceps) on Little Barrier Island, Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand
Author(s): Greene TC
Source: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 22 (2): 161-171 1998
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 50 Times Cited: 3
Abstract: The diet of red-crowned parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae novaezelandiae) and yellow-crowned parakeets (C. auriceps auriceps) was compared on Little Barrier Island, New Zealand between 1986 and 1987. Significant dietary differences were observed in these sympatric, congeneric species. Yellow-crowned parakeets ate significantly more invertebrates than red-crowned parakeets, which fed on a greater variety of plant foods. Red-crowned parakeets were found in all vegetation types depending on the availability of food and were commonly seen foraging on the ground in open habitats. In contrast, yellow-crowned parakeets were more arboreal and showed distinct preferences for forested habitats. The existence of both parakeet species in sympatry is examined as is the ecological importance of invertebrate food sources. Observed differences in the behaviour and ecology of parakeet species on Little Barrier Island are used to provide insight into the present day distribution and status of parakeets on mainland New Zealand.
Author Keywords: red-crowned parakeet; yellow-crowned parakeet; kakariki; Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae; Cyanoramphus auriceps; parrots; psittaciformes; diet; foraging ecology
KeyWords Plus: FOREST
Addresses: Greene TC (reprint author), STIS, Dept Conservat, Sci & Res Unit, No Reg Sci Unit, Private Bag 68-908, Auckland, New Zealand
Univ Auckland, Dept Zool, Auckland, 1 New Zealand
Publisher: NEW ZEALAND ECOL SOC, PO BOX 25178, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND



Title: Stable individual differences on developmental tasks in young yellow-crowned parakeets, Cyanoramphus auriceps
Author(s): Funk MS, Matteson RL
Source: LEARNING & BEHAVIOR 32 (4): 427-439 NOV 2004
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 41 Times Cited: 0
Abstract: We report on stable individual differences in young yellow-crowned parakeets across 38 tasks of cognitive development on three scales involving object permanence, means-end relations, and spatial relations. Stable performance ranks on blocks of tasks emerged after 13 weeks in two groups of sibling parakeets' one hand-reared and the other parent-reared. Examination of subject characteristics, such as hatch order, sex, general activity level, avoidances, latencies, social status, and errors, showed no significant correlations with these performance ranks. Characteristic individual approaches to unstructured play activities (from a fourth scale) were consistent with individual behavioral differences seen on the structured cognitive tasks.
KeyWords Plus: PARROT PSITTACUS-ERITHACUS; OBJECT PERMANENCE; BEHAVIOR; CHOICE; BIRDS
Addresses: Funk MS (reprint author), Roosevelt Univ, Dept Biol, 430 S Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL 60605 USA
Northwestern Univ, Evanston, IL 60208 USA
E-mail Addresses: mdfunk@northwestern.edu
Publisher: PSYCHONOMIC SOC INC, 1710 FORTVIEW RD, AUSTIN, TX 78704 USA
Subject Category: PSYCHOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL; PSYCHOLOGY, EXPERIMENTAL; BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES; ZOOLOGY


Title: A new parrot from the Miocene of Germany, with comments on the variation of hypotarsus morphology in some Psittaciformes
Author(s): Mayr G, Gohlich UB
Source: BELGIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY 134 (1): 47-54 JAN 2004
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 31 Times Cited: 0
Abstract: A new taxon of parrot (Psittaciformes) is described from the Middle Miocene of Southern Germany. Bavaripsitta ballmanni gen. et sp. n. is known from an almost complete tarsometatarsus which resembles the corresponding bone of some small Psittaculini (Polytelis, Alisterus) and Platycercini (e.g., Psephotus spp.) in general shape and morphology. Although the new taxon cannot be assigned to any of the modern groups of parrots, together with other fossil specimens it shows that there was a considerable diversity of parrots in the Lower and Middle Miocene of the Old World. Our study further provides the first detailed survey on the variation of hypotarsus morphology within extant Psittaciformes. A derived hypotarsal structure is described that supports monophyly of a clade including the genera Psephotus, Eunymphicus, Cyanoramphus, Northiella, Prosopeia, Barnardius, Platycercus, and Melopsittacus, to the exclusion of Neophema and Neopsephotus (all Platycercini). Also well characterized by a derived morphology of the hypotarsus are Loriinae and Cyclopsittacini. A shared derived hypotarsal morphology may further support sister group relationship between Agapornis and Loriculus (Psittaculini).
Author Keywords: aves; psittaciformes; Bavaripsitta ballmanni gen. et sp n; miocene; Nordlinger Ries; hypotarsus; phylogeny
KeyWords Plus: AVES; RIVERSLEIGH; QUEENSLAND; PLIOCENE
Addresses: Mayr G (reprint author), Forsch Inst Senckenberg, Sekt Ornithol, Senckenberganlage 25, Frankfurt, D-60325 Germany
Forsch Inst Senckenberg, Sekt Ornithol, Frankfurt, D-60325 Germany
Dept Umwelt & Geowissensch, Sekt Palaontol, Munich, D-80333 Germany
E-mail Addresses: Gerald.Mayr@senckenberg.de
Publisher: SOCIETE ROYALE ZOOLOGIQUE DE BELGIQUE, C/O PROF DR E SCHOCKAERT, DEPT SBG, LIMBURGS UNIVERSITAIR CENTRUM, B-3590 DIEPENBEEK, BELGIUM

Title: Bacterial sinusitis as a cause of beak deformity in an Antipodes Island parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor)
Author(s): Gartrell BD, Alley MR, Kelly T
Source: NEW ZEALAND VETERINARY JOURNAL 51 (4): 196-198 AUG 2003
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 15 Times Cited: 0
Abstract: CASE HISTORY. From 26 days of age, an Antipodes Island parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor) was noted to have a severe beak deformity and reduced bodyweight gain compared to its nest mate. The bird was euthanised at 43 days of age.
CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: The beak abnormality consisted of distortion of the right nares and severe shortening resulting in deviation of the upper maxilla to the right and cranially. On sectioning the head, copious mucoid material was found in the infraorbital sinus and the bony sinus architecture was disrupted. Histopathological examination of the infraorbital sinuses revealed a large focus of chronic but active inflammation, bony lysis on the right side and pockets of a mixed population of bacteria.

DIAGNOSIS: Severe beak deformity, likely secondary to bacterial sinusitis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The case illustrates the need to look for underlying aetiologies to beak malformation, particularly in young parrots.

Author Keywords: sinusitis; beak malformation; Antipodes Island parakeet; parrot; beak growth
KeyWords Plus: PSITTACINE; BIRDS
Addresses: Gartrell BD (reprint author), Massey Univ, Inst Vet Anim & Biomed Sci, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Massey Univ, Inst Vet Anim & Biomed Sci, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Vet Ctr Rotorua, Rotorua, New Zealand
Publisher: NEW ZEALAND VETERINARY ASSOC INC, PO BOX 11-212 MANNERS ST, WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND

Title: Similarity of chatter calls between Orange-fronted Parakeet Cyanoramphus malherbi and Yellow-crowned Parakeet C-auriceps
Author(s): Kearvell JC, Briskie JV
Source: IBIS 145 (2): 333-336 APR 2003
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 19 Times Cited: 0
KeyWords Plus: NEW-ZEALAND
Addresses: Kearvell JC (reprint author), Dept Conservat, 133 Victoria St, Christchurch, New Zealand
Dept Conservat, Christchurch, New Zealand
Univ Canterbury, Dept Zool, Christchurch, 1 New Zealand
Publisher: BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS UNION, C/O NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM, SUB-DEPT ORNITHOLOGY, TRING HP23 6AP, HERTS, ENGLAND
Subject Category: ORNITHOLOGY

Title: Comparative ecology of sympatric orange-fronted parakeets (Cyanoramphus malherbi) and yellow-crowned parakeets (C auriceps), South Island, New Zealand
Author(s): Kearvell JC, Young JR, Grant AD
Source: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 26 (2): 139-148 2002
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 46 Times Cited: 1
Abstract: Sympatric orange-fronted (Cyanoramphus malherbi) and yellow-crowned parakeets (C. auriceps) were surveyed in a South Island beech (Nothofagus spp.) forest during the spring and summer of 1998/99. Habitat use, behaviour and diet were recorded for each parakeet identified. A single observer did all recording. Both species were seen most frequently in the upper-most 20% of the forest stratum. Orange-fronted parakeets were seen more frequently than yellow-crowned parakeets in the lowest 20% of the forest stratum. Orange-fronted parakeets were seen calling less frequently and comforting more frequently than yellow-crowned parakeets, and this may reflect a difference in breeding period behaviour. Both species were usually seen feeding. In summer, both species were seen feeding mostly on seeds, predominantly from mountain beech - but this was a beech mast year. The spring diet of both species appeared to be largely flowers and invertebrates. Orange-fronted parakeets were seen feeding on flowers less frequently and on invertebrates more frequently than yellow-crowned parakeets. We suggest factors that may have contributed to the decline in abundance of both species: (1) greater competition between the two species in a habitat substantially modified by humans; (2) competition with introduced finch species; (3) competition with wasps for invertebrates; and (4) vulnerability to introduced predators. These last two factors are likely to affect orange-fronted parakeets in particular, because they appear to feed more on invertebrates and make greater use of the ground and low-growing plants.
Author Keywords: conservation; Cyanoramphus; diet; foraging behaviour; mainland; Nothofagus; orange-fronted parakeet; predation; yellow-crowned parakeet
KeyWords Plus: BEECH FOREST; SYSTEMATICS; FJORDLAND
Addresses: Kearvell JC (reprint author), Dept Conservat, Private Bag 5715, Christchurch, New Zealand
Dept Conservat, Christchurch, New Zealand
Vital Stat Ltd, Christchurch, New Zealand
Publisher: NEW ZEALAND ECOL SOC, PO BOX 25178, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND

Title: Problem solving skills in young yellow-crowned parakeets (Cyanoramphus auriceps)
Author(s): Funk MS
Source: ANIMAL COGNITION 5 (3): 167-176 SEP 2002
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 73 Times Cited: 3
Abstract: Despite the long divergent evolutionary history of birds and mammals, early avian and primate cognitive development have many convergent features. Some of these features were investigated with a series of tasks designed to assess human infant development. The tasks were presented to young parakeets to assess their means-end problem solving abilities. Examples of these early skills are: attaining and playing with objects, retrieving rewards through use of a stick or rake, or by pulling in rewards on supports or on the ends of strings. Twelve such tasks were presented to 11 young yellow-crowned parakeets (Cyano-ramphus auriceps) to investigate their natural abilities; there was no attempt to train them to do those tasks that they did not spontaneously perform. Six of the birds were parent-raised and five were hand-raised. The birds completed 9 of the 12 tasks, demonstrating all the Piagetian sensorimotor circular reactions, but they failed to hand-watch ("claw-watch"), to stack objects, or to fill a container. Their ordinality on the tasks differed from that of human infants in that locomotion to obtain objects occurred earlier in the avian sequence of development and the mid-level tasks were performed by the two groups of avian subjects in a mixed order perhaps indicating that these abilities may not emerge in any particular order for these birds as they supposedly do for human infants. The hand-raised group needed fewer sessions to complete these means-end tasks.
Author Keywords: development; New Zealand parakeets; problem solving
KeyWords Plus: CHIMPANZEES PAN-TROGLODYTES; COMBINATORIAL MANIPULATION; SENSORIMOTOR INTELLIGENCE; OBJECT PERMANENCE; CEBUS-APELLA; AVIAN PLAY; TOOL USE; MONKEYS; COGNITION; PRIMATES
Addresses: Funk MS (reprint author), Roosevelt Univ, Dept Biol, 430 S Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL 60605 USA
Northwestern Univ, Dept Anthropol, Evanston, IL 60208 USA
Publisher: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, HEIDELBERGER PLATZ 3, D-14197 BERLIN, GERMANY
Subject Category: BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES; ZOOLOGY

Title: Nutrition of birds in the order Psittaciformes: A review
Author(s): Koutsos EA, Matson KD, Klasing KC
Source: JOURNAL OF AVIAN MEDICINE AND SURGERY 15 (4): 257-275 DEC 2001
Document Type: Review
Language: English
Cited References: 130 Times Cited: 4
Abstract: Over 350 species of birds make up the order Psittaciformes; many of these are maintained in captive environments. Malnutrition is commonly diagnosed in captive psittacine birds; therefore, providing nutritionally adequate diets must be a primary concern. This review integrates quantitative information on the dietary habits and nutritional requirements of psittacine birds to facilitate the formulation and evaluation of diets for birds in captivity. Initially, characterization of the diet and feeding strategy of a particular species in the wild can provide insight into appropriate diet choices in captivity. Knowledge of the gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology can be used to elucidate the capacity of that species to utilize various feedstuffs. For example, the presence of a highly muscularized gizzard may allow a bird to utilize a seed-based diet, whereas a species possessing a small gizzard may be unable to process such a diet. Finally, nutrient requirements determined in a particular species or a related species (eg, similar digestive physiology and feeding strategy) may be applied to create a nutritionally adequate diet. Understanding the factors involved in selecting appropriate diets enables aviculturists, veterinarians, and nutritionists to maintain and propagate these birds with increased success.
Author Keywords: nutrition; requirements; diets; avian; psittacine; Psittaciformes
KeyWords Plus: COCKATIEL NYMPHICUS-HOLLANDICUS; MELOPSITTACUS-UNDULATUS; CYANORAMPHUS-AURICEPS; AUSTRALIAN PARROTS; GRANIVOROUS BIRDS; FORAGING ECOLOGY; FEEDING ECOLOGY; WATER ECONOMY; NEW-ZEALAND; PET BIRDS
Addresses: Koutsos EA (reprint author), Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anim Sci, Davis, CA 95616 USA
Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anim Sci, Davis, CA 95616 USA
Univ Missouri, Dept Biol, St Louis, MO 63121 USA
Publisher: ASSOC AVIAN VETERINARIANS, PO BOX 811720, BOCA RATON, FL 33481 USA
Subject Category: VETERINARY SCIENCES

Title: Dating of Rattus exulans and bird bone from Pleasant River (Otago, New Zealand): radiocarbon anomalies from diet
Author(s): Beavan-Athfield N, Sparks RJ
Source: JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND 31 (4): 801-809 DEC 2001
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 32 Times Cited: 7
Abstract: Radiocarbon ages of Rattus exulans bone recovered from the Pleasant River, Otago, archaeological site were originally rejected on the basis of C-14 variability allegedly caused by laboratory processing. Subsequent work revealed no burial contaminant that could have affected the results on bone protein as processed. We present the analysis of bone from seven bird species at the Pleasant River site, which showed that marshland fowl also had up to 300 yr radiocarbon variation in their ages, but maintained terrestrial-range delta(13)C and delta(15)N values. The apparent dietary effect that offsets marshland fowl 14C ages at Pleasant River suggested there was a similar, diet-based cause for the anomalous radiocarbon ages for some R. exulans at the site, rather than a laboratory contamination or processing effect.
Author Keywords: radiocarbon; bone; diet; stable isotopes; Rattus exulans; Coturnix novaezelandiae; Cyanoramphus sp.; Anas rhynchotis; Anas superciliosa; Anas chlorotis; Megadyptes antipodes; Stictocarbo punctatus
KeyWords Plus: STABLE-ISOTOPE; C-14 AGES; ANIMALS; MARINE; NITROGEN; SHELLS
Addresses: Beavan-Athfield N (reprint author), Inst Geol & Nucl Sci, Rafter Radiocarbon Lab, Box 31 312, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Inst Geol & Nucl Sci, Rafter Radiocarbon Lab, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Publisher: SIR PUBLISHING, PO BOX 399, WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND
Subject Category: MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES

Title: The Norfolk Island Green Parrot and New Caledonian Red-crowned Parakeet are distinct species
Author(s): Boon WM, Daugherty CH, Chambers GK
Source: EMU 101 (2): 113-121 2001
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 40 Times Cited: 1
Abstract: The Norfolk Island Green Parrot and New Caledonian Red-crowned Parakeet were first described in the middle of the last century as subspecies of the widespread New Zealand Red-crowned Parakeet (C. novaezelandiae). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of all extant taxa of Cyanoramphus, except the Kermadec Island Parakeet (C, novaezelandiae cyanurus), reveal that the Norfolk Island Green Parrot, previously C. n. cooki, and New Caledonian Red-crowned Parakeet, previously C. n. saisetti, are highly divergent from all other members of the genus. We therefore elevate them to full species status as C. cooki and C. saisetti respectively. In our DNA sequencing study, two highly distinct, statistically well supported monophyletic clades were identified for both taxa under maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and minimum evolution analyses. Both taxa are well separated from the C. novaezelandiae clade. The New Caledonian taxon is basal and may be the most ancient of all extant Cyanoramphus species. Levels of uncorrected percentage sequence divergences among mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region DNA sequences ranged from 7.80 to 9.55% between the New Caledonian Red-crowned Parakeet and other recognised congeneric species. The corresponding sequence divergence for the Norfolk Island Green Parrot from other Cyanoramphus species was 3.18-6.44%. Interspecific comparisons of Cyanoramphus species normally range from 2.03 to 7.93% (the latter two ranges do not include comparisons with the New Caledonian Red-crowned Parakeet). The mtDNA sequence data of both Norfolk Island and New Caledonian taxa fulfil criteria for their designation as species under the Phylogenetic Species Concept.
KeyWords Plus: NUCLEOTIDE SUBSTITUTION; GENE ORDER; CONSERVATION; SEQUENCES; SITES; BIAS; DNA
Addresses: Boon WM (reprint author), Univ Melbourne, Howard Florey Inst, Parkville, Vic 3052 Australia
Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Biol Sci, Inst Mol Syst, Wellington, New Zealand
Publisher: C S I R O PUBLISHING, 150 OXFORD ST, PO BOX 1139, COLLINGWOOD, VICTORIA 3066, AUSTRALIA
Subject Category: ORNITHOLOGY

Title: Distinguishing between sexes and species: bill size in Orange-fronted and Yellow-crowned Parakeets, Cyanoramphus auriceps
Author(s): Young JR, Kearvell JC
Source: EMU 101 (2): 137-143 2001
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 24 Times Cited: 3
Abstract: Controversy surrounds the taxonomic status of the Orange-fronted Parakeet (previously known as Cyanoramphus malherbi), officially a colour morph of the more common Yellow-crowned Parakeet C. auriceps. We analyse bill length and bill width measurements from 60 museum specimens of Orange-fronted Parakeet and 44 museum specimens of Yellow-crowned Parakeet. Male Orange-fronted Parakeets have shorter bills than male Yellow-crowned Parakeets - the difference between sample means is 0.7-0.8 mm. Power calculations show that others have most likely not seen the difference as significant because of small sample sizes. Our analysis illustrates a useful statistical technique for identifying morphological differences between two species where both species are sexually dimorphic but the sex of each individual is uncertain.
Addresses: Young JR (reprint author), Vital Stat Ltd, 85B Barrington St, Christchurch, New Zealand
Vital Stat Ltd, Christchurch, New Zealand
Dept Conservat, Christchurch, New Zealand
Publisher: C S I R O PUBLISHING, 150 OXFORD ST, PO BOX 1139, COLLINGWOOD, VICTORIA 3066, AUSTRALIA
Subject Category: ORNITHOLOGY

Title: Using molecular methods to understand the Gondwanan affinities of the New Zealand biota: three case studies
Author(s): Chambers GK, Boon WM, Buckley TR, Hitchmough RA
Source: AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY 49 (3): 377-387 2001
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 55 Times Cited: 8
Abstract: The application of new molecular technologies is central to the search for causal mechanisms capable of explaining the modern-day biogeography of the southern continents. Projects have previously focused on marine mammals and birds, but in recent years they have begun to expand in scope. We now describe the results from three studies carried out recently on parakeets (genus Cyanoramphus), cicadas (genus Maoricicada) and geckos (genera Hoplodactylus and Naultinus) in the context of the Gondwanan affinities of the New Zealand biota. The work described here has been the subject of independent reports (see text for individual references) and their findings have been brought together for the first time here in a more general synthesis.
KeyWords Plus: RELATIVE-RATE TEST; NUCLEOTIDE SUBSTITUTION; INDEPENDENT ORIGINS; EVOLUTIONARY RATES; MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA; GENE; BIOGEOGRAPHY; PHYLOGENY; SEQUENCES; HISTORY
Addresses: Chambers GK (reprint author), Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Biol Sci, Inst Mol Systemat, POB 600, Wellington, New Zealand
Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Biol Sci, Inst Mol Systemat, Wellington, New Zealand
Publisher: C S I R O PUBLISHING, 150 OXFORD ST, PO BOX 1139, COLLINGWOOD, VICTORIA 3066, AUSTRALIA
Subject Category: PLANT SCIENCES
Back to top
Tanygnathus
Member
Member


Joined: May 09, 2005
Posts: 11

PostPosted: Tue May 10, 2005 7:14 am    Post subject: Pars II

Title: Molecular systematics of New Zealand Cyanoramphus parakeets: conservation of orange-fronted and Forbes' Parakeets
Author(s): Boon WM, Kearvell JC, Daugherty CH, Chambers GK
Source: BIRD CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL 10 (3): 211-239 SEP 2000
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 74 Times Cited: 5
Abstract: The controversy that presently surrounds the taxonomy of the Orange-fronted Cyanoramphus malherbi and Forbes' C. forbesi Parakeets has important implications for the conservation of both birds. Both taxa are critically endangered, but consensus regarding their specific status has not yet been achieved. We present mitochondrial DNA sequences for the cytochrome b gene and the control region from 17 Cyanoramphus parakeets representing nine populations and six taxa together with field observations of courtship and breeding behaviour in a sympatric population of Orange-fronted and Yellow-crowned Parakeets C. auriceps. Field data support species status of the Orange-fronted Parakeet under the Biological Species Concept. Phylogenetic analyses of our DNA sequence data support earlier hypotheses based on allozyme data that both Orange-fronted and Forbes' Parakeets represent distinct species under four species concepts and indicate that high conservation priority is warranted for both taxa.
KeyWords Plus: CYTOCHROME-B GENE; MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA; NUCLEAR GENOME; EVOLUTION; SEQUENCE; AMPLIFICATION; AURICEPS; ECOLOGY; ISLAND; ORDER
Addresses: Boon WM (reprint author), Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Biol Sci, Inst Mol Systemat, POB 600, Wellington, New Zealand
Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Biol Sci, Inst Mol Systemat, Wellington, New Zealand
New Zealand Dept Conservat, Canterbury Conservancy, Christchurch, New Zealand
Publisher: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 40 WEST 20TH STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10011-4211 USA
Subject Category: ORNITHOLOGY


Title: Studies on the species-specific behaviour of the Red-fronted Parakeet under aviary conditions and to derive an optimized in door-flight-system
Author(s): Schumann K
Source: KLEINTIERPRAXIS 44 (11): 845-+ NOV 1999
Document Type: Article
Language: German
Cited References: 18 Times Cited: 0
Abstract: A systematic observation of the Red-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) under standardized aviary conditions was done. Different aviary systems have been tested and analysed referring to the duration and frequency of defined behaviour patterns. Above all, the emphasis was placed on increasing the activities of the birds by offering a variety of environments in the aviary in order to counteract the wearying effect of keeping. On the objective of improvement of these combined conditions in a way that any owner can follow the aim of increase by percentage of activities accompanied by reducing the duration of resting was achieved and shown in both sexes. Therefore, the combined environment was an optimal system for Red-fronted Parakeets, both according to analysis of the data and to subjective impression.
Addresses: Schumann K (reprint author), Odenwaldstr 6, Berlin, D-12161 Germany
Free Univ Berlin, Fak Vet Med, Inst Geflugelkrankheiten, Berlin, D-1000 Germany
Publisher: M H SCHAPER GMBH CO KG, POSTFACH 16 42 16 52 KALANDSTRASSE 4, W-3220 ALFELD, GERMANY


Title: Foraging ecology of the red-crowned parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae novaezelandiae) and yellow-crowned parakeet (C-auriceps auriceps) on Little Barrier Island, Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand
Author(s): Greene TC
Source: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 22 (2): 161-171 1998
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 50 Times Cited: 3
Abstract: The diet of red-crowned parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae novaezelandiae) and yellow-crowned parakeets (C. auriceps auriceps) was compared on Little Barrier Island, New Zealand between 1986 and 1987. Significant dietary differences were observed in these sympatric, congeneric species. Yellow-crowned parakeets ate significantly more invertebrates than red-crowned parakeets, which fed on a greater variety of plant foods. Red-crowned parakeets were found in all vegetation types depending on the availability of food and were commonly seen foraging on the ground in open habitats. In contrast, yellow-crowned parakeets were more arboreal and showed distinct preferences for forested habitats. The existence of both parakeet species in sympatry is examined as is the ecological importance of invertebrate food sources. Observed differences in the behaviour and ecology of parakeet species on Little Barrier Island are used to provide insight into the present day distribution and status of parakeets on mainland New Zealand.
Author Keywords: red-crowned parakeet; yellow-crowned parakeet; kakariki; Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae; Cyanoramphus auriceps; parrots; psittaciformes; diet; foraging ecology
KeyWords Plus: FOREST
Addresses: Greene TC (reprint author), STIS, Dept Conservat, Sci & Res Unit, No Reg Sci Unit, Private Bag 68-908, Auckland, New Zealand
Univ Auckland, Dept Zool, Auckland, 1 New Zealand
Publisher: NEW ZEALAND ECOL SOC, PO BOX 25178, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND


Title: Development of object permanence in the New Zealand parakeet (Cyanoramphus auriceps)
Author(s): Funk MS
Source: ANIMAL LEARNING & BEHAVIOR 24 (4): 375-383 NOV 1996
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 54 Times Cited: 19
Abstract: Eleven young kakarikis (Cyanoramphus auriceps) were tested on 15 object-permanence tasks in a standardized scale that has been used to assess the development of human infants, some nonhuman primates, and other mammals. The birds successfully completed all tasks in this scale, and many aspects of their testing were similar to human results, such as evidencing the A-not-B error. However, the birds differed slightly but significantly from human subjects in that some of the ''invisible displacements'' of the later tasks were performed before the earlier visible displacement tasks. These results may relate to common ecological activities of this species. Six of the birds were parent-raised; 5 were hand-raised. The hand-raised birds achieved criteria more quickly than did the parent-raised birds possibly because the former were more accustomed to the investigator and less distractible in the test situation.
KeyWords Plus: CATS FELIS-CATUS; PARROT PSITTACUS-ERITHACUS; DOGS CANIS-FAMILIARIS; COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENT; SEARCH BEHAVIOR; SENSORIMOTOR INTELLIGENCE; INVISIBLE DISPLACEMENTS; CAPUCHIN MONKEYS; CEBUS-APELLA; INFANTS
Addresses: NORTHWESTERN UNIV, EVANSTON, IL USA
Publisher: PSYCHONOMIC SOC INC, 1710 FORTVIEW RD, AUSTIN, TX 78704
Subject Category: PSYCHOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL; PSYCHOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL; PSYCHOLOGY, EXPERIMENTAL; PSYCHOLOGY, EXPERIMENTAL; BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES; BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES; ZOOLOGY; ZOOLOGY


Title: Predators and the decline of New Zealand forest birds: An introduction to the hole-nesting bird and predator programme
Author(s): ODonnell CFJ
Source: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY 23 (3): 213-219 SEP 1996
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 47 Times Cited: 35
Abstract: The role of predators in the decline of New Zealand forest birds, and specifically the roles of mustelids and rodents, is reviewed. Hole-nesting forest birds are particularly vulnerable to predation because they display few predator-avoidance behaviours. Mohua (Mohua ochrocephala) and parakeets are especially at risk because they nest when stoat (Mustela erminea) numbers in the forest are highest, and, because only females incubate, nest predation causes a biassed sex ratio. The Department of Conservation's hole-nesting birds and predator research programme aims to investigate three questions: (1) Are contemporary predators still having a significant impact on the long-term viability of forest bird populations? (2) Can we predict when predators will affect forest bird populations? (3) Can we increase the productivity and viability of forest bird populations by controlling predators? Mohua and yellow-crowned parakeets were used as indicator species to answer these questions, and the resulting eight studies are briefly outlined.
Author Keywords: predators; forest birds; hole-nesting birds; indicator species; mohua; yellowhead; Mohua ochrocephala; yellow-crowned parakeet; Cyanoramphus auriceps; stoats; Mustela erminea; rats; Rattus sp
Addresses: ODonnell CFJ (reprint author), DEPT CONSERVAT, DIV SCI & RES, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND
Publisher: SIR PUBLISHING, PO BOX 399, WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND


Title: The ecology of yellow-crowned parakeets (Cyanoramphus auriceps) in Nothofagus forest in Fiordland, New Zealand
Author(s): Elliott GP, Dilks PJ, ODonnell CFJ
Source: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY 23 (3): 249-265 SEP 1996
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 48 Times Cited: 28
Abstract: Yellow-crowned parakeets (Cyanoramphus auriceps) were studied in the Eglinton Valley, Fiordland, New Zealand. Productivity and mortality were closely related to cycles of beech seeding. Following a heavy beech mast, parakeets fed extensively on beech seed, and bred not only during their normal late summer breeding season, but right through the following winter, spring, and summer. During this time, the parakeet population increased dramatically, but in the following autumn it declined sharply, probably as a result of the depletion of beech seed and high rates of predation by stoats and perhaps other arboreal predators. Nesting parakeets are very vulnerable to stoat predation because they are hole-nesters and because their chicks are very noisy just before fledging. Stoat trapping during a stoat irruption seemed to be of no benefit. Although trapping reduced stoat population density, enough stoats remained to prey on all accessible parakeet nests. More extensive trapping, and trapping when stoat numbers are relatively low, are more likely to benefit parakeets.
Author Keywords: yellow-crowned parakeet; Cyanoramphus auriceps; beech mast; population irruption; breeding; nest dimensions; radio tracking; stoat predation
Addresses: DEPT CONSERVAT, DIV SCI & RES, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND
Publisher: SIR PUBLISHING, PO BOX 399, WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND
Subject Category: ZOOLOGY

Title: Nest site selection by mohua and yellow-crowned parakeets in beech forest in Fiordland, New Zealand
Author(s): Elliott GP, Dilks PJ, ODonnell CFJ
Source: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY 23 (3): 267-278 SEP 1996
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 24 Times Cited: 8
Abstract: Nest site selection in two hole-nesting forest birds, mohua (yellowhead, Mohoua ochrocephala) and yellow-crowned parakeet (Cyanoramphus auriceps), was investigated. Parakeets nested in a wide range of cavities ranging in size up to half a metre across. In contrast, mohua used small cavities that support the sides of their cup-shaped nests. Most parakeet nests were found in red beech trees (Nothofagus fusca), which have many large cavities, and both species nested most often in trees > 70 cm in diameter. Nest sites are very numerous in our study area and are probably not limiting for either species in similar forests throughout Fiordland. However, neither species is likely to be able to nest in beech forests managed for timber production, in which most trees will be large enough for nesting only just before they are harvested. Although long-tailed cuckoos (Eudynamys taitensis) parasitise mohua nests and prey upon their nestlings, most mohua nest holes are too small for cuckoos to lay eggs in. High nests of both species are less likely to be preyed upon by stoats than low ones. Neither species shows adaptive preferences for small nest holes or high nest sites. This paper presents a novel way to analyse the use of nesting cavities using capture-recapture analysis.
Author Keywords: nest site selection; hole-nesting birds; yellow-crowned parakeet; Cyanoramphus auriceps; mohua; Mohoua ochrocephala; nest predation; nest site availability
Addresses: DEPT CONSERVAT, DIV SCI & RES, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND
Publisher: SIR PUBLISHING, PO BOX 399, WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND

Title: ENERGETICS OF NEW-ZEALANDS TEMPERATE PARROTS
Author(s): MCNAB BK, SALISBURY CA
Source: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY 22 (3): 339-349 SEP 1995
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 0 Times Cited: 2
Abstract: As in most parrots (Order: Psittaciformes) studied, New Zealand species have, independent of body mass, high basal rates of metabolism, low thermal conductances, and precisely regulated body temperatures. An analysis of covariance showed that basal rate in parrots correlates with body mass and thermal climate; temperate species have basal rates that are 21% higher than those of tropical species; and New Zealand's parrot have basal rates 32% higher than expected from body mass. Present information suggests that basal rate in parrots appears to be correlated neither with water availability in the environment nor with food habits. High basal rates in parrots are associated with large pectoral muscle masses. The very small pectoral muscle masses of the kakapo, Strigops habroptilus, predict that this flightless parrot has a low basal rate.
Author Keywords: ENERGETICS; PARROTS; RATE OF METABOLISM; CYANORAMPHUS; NESTOR; STRIGOPS
Addresses: MCNAB BK (reprint author), VICTORIA UNIV WELLINGTON, SCH BIOL SCI, POB 600, WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND
Publisher: SIR PUBLISHING, PO BOX 399, WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND
Subject Category: ZOOLOGY

Title: QUATERNARY FOSSIL FAUNAS FROM CAVES ON MT-COOKSON, NORTH-CANTERBURY, SOUTH-ISLAND, NEW-ZEALAND
Author(s): WORTHY TH, HOLDAWAY RN
Source: JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND 25 (3): 333-370 SEP 1995
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 68 Times Cited: 25
Abstract: The late Quaternary fossil vertebrate faunas from caves and cliff sites in the limestone of Mt Cookson, near Waiau in North Canterbury, are described. These faunas allow documentation of faunal changes in the area over the last 40,000 years, and reveal differences from other previously studied areas that are related to climate. Pitfall faunas from the numerous potholes dominate the deposits, but three predator-accumulated deposits, attributed to the New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae, were found. The deposits in Merino Cave and Holocene Hole were studied in detail.
Merino Cave had two distinct fossil faunas, from which six radiocarbon dates were obtained, showing that deposition spanned the Otiran Glacial period, between 38,000 yrs BP and 14,000 yrs BP. The older of the two Merino Cave faunas, dated at about 38,000 yrs BP, is the first extensive assemblage for the mid-Otiran period from New Zealand. The moa fauna was dominated by the heavy-footed moa Pachyornis elephantopus, but the stout-legged moa Euryapteryx geranoides, upland moa Megalapteryx didinus, large bush moa Dinornis novaezealandiae, and slender moa D. struthoides were present. Carinates included the following: Eyles's harrier Circus eylesi, adzebill Aptornis defossor, large kiwis Apteryx australis or A. haastii, weka Gallirallus australis, New Zealand quail Coturnix novaezelandiae, Finsch's duck Euryanas finschi, kea Nestor notabilis, laughing owl Sceloglaux albifacies, and owlet-nightjar Aegotheles novaezealandiae. This assemblage indicates an open shrubland grassland environment. The younger Merino Cave fauna was deposited between 20,000 and 14,000 years ago, during the last major glacial advance at the coldest time of the Otira Glaciation. Only moa bones were present, and P. elephantopus again dominated the fauna. This late Otiran population comprised larger individuals than did the mid-Otiran population, indicating mean size of individuals got bigger as the climate cooled.

Holocene Hole had a rich deposit of small birds dating from the late Holocene, between 3,000 and 2,400 yrs BP. This fauna was deposited when continuous beech forest clothed the landscape. By then the large emeids P. elephantopus, E. geranoides, and M. didinus had been replaced in the fauna by the little bush moa Anomalopteryx didiformis in association with the large bush moa D. novaezealandiae. New Zealand quail and pipits Anthus novaeseelandine were absent from the local fauna which was dominated by a range of forest species. However, the presence of adzebills and Finsch's ducks, both absent in Holocene forests farther west, reflects the low rainfall and seasonal dryness of the area. Several species of petrels were present on Mt Cookson: Mottled petrels Pterodroma inexpectata, Cook's petrel Pterodroma cookii, shearwaters Puffinus sp., and diving petrels Pelecanoides urinatrix.

The falcon deposits were dominated by bones of kiore Rattus exulans, and included a few bones of species introduced to New Zealand by Europeans, indicating that most of the remains were deposited in the last 800 years, or during the post-human contact period. However, bones of a wide range of bird species, numerically dominated by parakeets Cyanoramphus sp,, were also present. Quail and pipit were common, and fernbirds Bowdleria punctata were present, indicating the re-establishment of shrublands or grasslands in the area during the post-human period. A small amount of material was older, as indicated by preservation characteristics and a single date of about 2,000 yrs BP. This older material contained the following species not present in material of post-rat age: wrens Xenicus sp., snipe Coenocorypha cf. aucklandica, short-tailed bats Mystacina sp., Duvaucel's gecko Hoplodactylus duvaucelii, and tuatara Sphenodon sp. These taxa are now extinct or confined to rat-free islands, so these fossil records support the contention that kiore were responsible for the reduction in their mainland ranges.

Author Keywords: PALAEOFAUNA; QUATERNARY; NORTH CANTERBURY; SOUTH ISLAND; NEW ZEALAND; CAVES; TAPHONOMY
KeyWords Plus: DINORNITHIFORMES; AVES
Addresses: WORTHY TH (reprint author), PALAEOFAUNAL SURVEYS, 43 THE RIDGEWAY, NELSON, NEW ZEALAND
UNIV CANTERBURY, DEPT ZOOL, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND
Publisher: SIR PUBLISHING, PO BOX 399, WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND


Title: FEEDING BY CAPTIVE RARE BIRDS ON BAITS USED IN POISONING OPERATIONS FOR CONTROL OF BRUSHTAIL POSSUMS
Author(s): SPURR EB
Source: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 17 (1): 13-18 1993
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 17 Times Cited: 8
Abstract: Non-toxic plain and cinnamon-flavoured carrots and cereal-based baits used in poisoning operations for control of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) were offered to seven species of captive rare birds at Mt Bruce National Wildlife Centre. Some individuals of all species ate plain baits. Antipodes Island parakeets (Cyanoramphus unicolor) preferred carrot to cereal-based baits, North Island kokako (Callaeas cinerea wilsoni) and North Island saddlebacks (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater) preferred cereal-based baits to car-rots, but the other species showed no bait preference. Most baits eaten were greater than 2 g. Some individuals of all species also ate cinnamon-flavoured baits. However, cinnamon deterred North Island kaka (Nestor meriodionalis septentrionalis), Antipodes Island parakeets, and kokako from feeding on baits the first day offered, though not subsequently. Insufficient baits were eaten by North Island weka (Gallirallus australis greyi), red-crowned parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae novaezelandiae), and Reischek's parakeets (Cyanoramphus n. hochstetteri) to determine whether they were also deterred by cinnamon. Only saddlebacks were definitely not deterred. All species except red-crowned and Reischek's parakeets probably ate sufficient to receive a lethal dose if the baits had been toxic. Baits may be made less acceptable to birds by increasing the strength or slowing the release of cinnamon, or by using a more repellent flavour. Because baits may always be acceptable to some birds, wildlife managers need to know the chances of wild rare birds feeding on baits before approving poisoning operations in areas where they occur.
Author Keywords: BIRDS; BAITS; SODIUM MONOFLUOROACETATE; BRODIFACOUM; PINDONE; POISONING OF NONTARGET SPECIES; REPELLENTS; MT BRUCE NATIONAL WILDLIFE CENTER
Addresses: SPURR EB (reprint author), MANAAKI WHENUA LANDCARE RES, POB 31-011, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND
Publisher: NEW ZEALAND ECOL SOC, PO BOX 25178, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND

Title: QUATERNARY FOSSIL FAUNAS FROM CAVES IN THE PUNAKAIKI AREA, WEST-COAST, SOUTH-ISLAND, NEW-ZEALAND
Author(s): WORTHY TH, HOLDAWAY RN
Source: JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND 23 (3): 147-254 SEP 1993
Document Type: Review
Language: English
Cited References: 134 Times Cited: 34
Abstract: The late Quaternary fossil vertebrate faunas from 42 caves in Oligocene limestones of the Barrytown Syncline, Westland, New Zealand, are described and discussed. The depositional environments in cave sites in the area are described and interpreted. Several major sites, including Metro Cave, Madonna Cave, and Te Ana Titi, are described in detail. The Hermit's Cave deposit is probably derived from pellets ejected by laughing owls (Sceloglaux albifacies) at one of their roost sites. Radiocarbon dating shows that the faunas were laid down at various times during the past 25,000 years. A date of 25,070 years is the oldest so far obtained from any cave fossil in New Zealand.
The fossil fauna consisted of 50 species of bird, three frogs, one skink, one gecko, one tuatara, and two or possibly three bats. They comprised two distinct faunal assemblages. A glacial fauna, dating from the last (Otira) Glaciation and Late Glacial periods, between 10,000 and 25,000 radiocarbon years ago, contained taxa typical of Holocene deposits in the east and south of the South Island. A Holocene fauna, deposited during the past 10,000 years, contained taxa typical of the West Coast forests at the time of European contact, plus extinct taxa.

The Otiran fauna was characterised by the moas Pachyomis elephantopus, Euryapteryx geranoides, and Megalapteryx didinus (only large morphs), the goose Cnemiornis calcitrans, and Finsch's duck Euryanas finschi. These were absent from the Holocene fauna, which included the moas Anomalopteryx didiformis, Dinornis struthoides, Dinornis novaezealandiae, and only small morphs of Megalapteryx didinus. Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) were common during the Holocene. Kiwi (Apteryx spp.), weka (Gallirallus australis), snipe (Coenocorypha cf. aucklandica), New Zealand pigeon (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), parakeets Cyanoramphus spp., tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae), robin Petroica australis, tomtit P. macrocephala, yellowhead Mohoua ochrocephala, rifleman Acanthisitta chloris, bush or rock wrens Xenicus spp., stout-legged wren Pachyplichas yaldwyni, piopio Tumagra capensis, kokako (Callaeas cinerea), and saddleback (Philestumus carunculatus) were present in both periods.

The presence of this diverse small bird fauna in deposits of Otiran glacial age shows that some tall shrubland or forest vegetation survived in the sheltered valleys of the Punakaiki area even during the coldest period about 18,000 radiocarbon years before present (yrs BP). The Holocene fauna is assumed to have lived in vegetation similar to that found by the first Europeans, i.e. wet, dense, podocarp-hardwood forest, with swamp vegetation on riverbed flats. An undescribed species of Puffinus shearwater similar to the extant Puffinus gavia was abundant in deposits throughout the study area, with dates ranging from at least 18,000 yrs BP to < 600 yrs BP; it is also known from the northwest South Island. Fossils of the Westland petrel (Procellaria westlandica) are recorded for the first time, and the fossil range of the black petrel (Procellaria parkinsoni) includes the Barrytown Syncline. The two species were, therefore, sympatric in the Holocene. The black-bellied storm petrel Fregetta tropica is recorded as a fossil from the mainland South Island for the first time, probably as a population morphologically distinct from those presently breeding on subantarctic islands south of New Zealand.

Author Keywords: CAVES; TAPHONOMY; FOSSILS; PALAEOFAUNA; PALEOECOLOGY; QUATERNARY; WEST COAST; SOUTH-I; NEW-ZEALAND
KeyWords Plus: RADIOCARBON AGE CALIBRATION; DINORNITHIFORMES; AVES; AVIFAUNA; HISTORY; VALLEY; NELSON
Addresses: WORTHY TH (reprint author), PALAEOFAUNAL SURVEYS, 43 THE RIDGEWAY, NELSON, NEW ZEALAND
UNIV CANTERBURY, DEPT ZOOL, CHRISTCHURCH, 1 NEW ZEALAND
Publisher: SIR PUBLISHING, PO BOX 399, WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND

Title: BIRD ABUNDANCE IN DIFFERENT-AGED STANDS OF RIMU (DACRYDIUM-CUPRESSINUM) - IMPLICATIONS FOR COUPE-LOGGING
Author(s): SPURR EB, WARBURTON B, DREW KW
Source: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY 16 (2): 109-118 1992
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 29 Times Cited: 8
Abstract: The abundance of birds in three different-aged stands (young, mature, and old) was examined at North Okarito, a lowland rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) forest in Westland, using 5-minute counts, transect counts, and mist-netting. Most of New Zealand's common forest bird species were present in the study area, with relatively high numbers of brown creeper (Mohoua novaeseelandiae) and New Zealand robin (Petroica australis), and low numbers of kaka (Nestor meridionalis) and yellow-crowned parakeet (Cyanoramphus auriceps). Most insectivorous species were more abundant than expected (from sampling effort) in young and mature stands, the frugivorous New Zealand pigeon (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) was more abundant than expected in mature and old stands, and most omnivorous species, viz., bellbird (Anthornis melanura), silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), and tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae), were more abundant than expected in young and old stands. North Okarito Forest provided an important source of seasonal foods (nectar, fruit, and seeds) for frugivorous, omnivorous, and introduced granivorous species, which tended to have greater changes in their seasonal abundance than did insectivorous species. Coupe-logging of old stands will affect all bird species because it will reduce the overall area of standing forest, but it will have a greater impact on the pigeon, bellbird, silvereye, robin, and tui because of their preference for old stands.
Author Keywords: WESTLAND; PODOCARP FOREST; RIMU; DACRYDIUM-CUPRESSINUM; LOGGING; BIRDS; FOREST MANAGEMENT
KeyWords Plus: NEW-ZEALAND; FORESTS
Addresses: SPURR EB (reprint author), MANAAKI WHENUA LANDCARE RES NEW ZEALAND LTD, POB 31011, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND
Publisher: NEW ZEALAND ECOL SOC, PO BOX 25178, CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND

Title: LEUCOCYTOZOON-LIKE INFECTION IN PARAKEETS, BUDGERIGARS AND A COMMON BUZZARD
Author(s): SIMPSON VR
Source: VETERINARY RECORD 129 (2): 30-32 JUL 13 1991
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 14 Times Cited: 5
Abstract: The gross and histological lesions of a protozoan infection, possibly caused by Leucocytozoon, in parakeets (genera Neophema and Cyanoramphus), budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and a wild buzzard (Buteo buteo) are described. The infection appears not to have been identified before in budgerigars in Great Britain, and in its chronic form resulted in vomiting and wasting. The possible identity of the parasite and the epidemiological factors are considered.
Addresses: SIMPSON VR (reprint author), MAFF, CTR VET INVEST, TRURO, CORNWALL TR4 9AD ENGLAND
Publisher: BRITISH VETERINARY ASSOC, 7 MANSFIELD ST, LONDON, ENGLAND W1M 0AT

Title: RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE AUSTRALO-PAPUAN PARROTS, LORIKEETS, AND COCKATOOS (AVES, PSITTACIFORMES) - PROTEIN EVIDENCE
Author(s): CHRISTIDIS L, SCHODDE R, SHAW DD, MAYNES SF
Source: CONDOR 93 (2): 302-317 MAY 1991
Document Type: Article
Language: English
Cited References: 41 Times Cited: 29
Abstract: Allozyme variation at 21 presumptive protein loci was examined by electrophoresis and used to assess relationships among Australo-Papuan parrots, lorikeets and cockatoos. Hypotheses of relationships were generated from the data by phenetic and cladistic analyses. The results, when taken into account with other biochemical, chromosomal and morphological data, demonstrate that cockatoos form a monophyletic lineage distant from the other Australo-Papuan parrots and lorikeets. The lorikeets are also monophyletic, but are clustered among other parrots. A core of Australian broad-tailed (platycercine) parrots is defined by the rosellas and ringnecks (Platycercus, Barnardius), Bluebonnet (Northiella), Red-capped Parrot (Purpureicephalus), Swift Parrot (Lathamus) and grass parrots (Psephotus). New Guinean Psittacella also appears to be a member of this assemblage, to which the polytelitine parrots (Alisterus-Polytelis) may be linked as well. Other "conventional" platycercine parrots-the Ground Parrot (Pezoporus), Budgerigar (Melopsittacus), Red-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus), and Blue-winged and Bourke's Parrots (Neophema)-are still more distant and of disparate affinity; the two latter species are polyphyletic among the platycercines. Of psittacine parrots, Eclectus (Eclectus) and Red-cheeked Parrots (Geoffroyus) are closely related but their links to other psittacine genera are not clear. Similarly, the relationships of the fig-parrots (Cyclopsitta), pygmy-parrots (Micropsitta), lovebirds (Agapornis) and ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula) are ambiguous. Biogeographical implications of these results are canvassed in the discussion.
Author Keywords: PARROTS; PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS; PSITTACIDAE; SYSTEMATICS; AUSTRALO-PAPUAN
KeyWords Plus: SYSTEMATICS; DISTANCE
Addresses: CHRISTIDIS L (reprint author), MUSEUM VICTORIA, DIV NAT HIST, DEPT ORNITHOL, MELBOURNE, VIC 3000 AUSTRALIA
CSIRO, AUSTRALIAN NATL WILDLIFE COLLECT, DIV WILDLIFE & ECOL, CANBERRA, 2602 AUSTRALIA
AUSTRALIAN NATL UNIV, RES SCH BIOL SCI, MOLEC & POPULAT GENET GRP, CANBERRA, ACT 2601 AUSTRALIA
Publisher: COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL SOC, ORNITHOLOGICAL SOC NORTH AMER PO BOX 1897, LAWRENCE, KS 66044-8897
Back to top
Tanygnathus
Member
Member


Joined: May 09, 2005
Posts: 11

PostPosted: Tue May 10, 2005 7:20 am    Post subject:

Dear Trans-oceanic Friends,
I suggest also a French article, generally about the etymology of the name of Kakariki and several others New-Zealand parrots.

Les Psittacidés de Polynésie : Kãkã de Nouvelle Zélande et ‘Ñã de la Société
- Un second essai d’ethno-ornithologie, published in Te Manu (the bird) Bulletin de la Société d’Ornithologie de Polynésie.

you can find also a scanned version directly here:
http://www.manu.pf/PDF/TeManu25.pdf
p. 5 and ff.

Lot of greetings to you all.

Dr.Francesco Saverio Dalba
University of Trento (Italy)
francescodalba@yahoo.it
Back to top
Allen
Foundation Member
Foundation Member


Joined: Oct 14, 2004
Posts: 269

PostPosted: Thu May 12, 2005 4:14 am    Post subject:

I am sure Apochrypha will appreciate this. He disapears for a while on field trips or other academic trips so he might not see your post for a while.

This is a bit technical for me, but will wade through this over a rainy week-end.

Never got around to mentioning this but has anyone read the Australian Bird keeper series of books, there is one about Kakarikis and Rosellas, is it any good?

I bought an Australian bird keeper book about Lorikeets and was a little dissapointed. I expected more detail, particularly for the price I paid.
Back to top
Tanygnathus
Member
Member


Joined: May 09, 2005
Posts: 11

PostPosted: Fri May 13, 2005 12:00 pm    Post subject:

Hello friends,
generally the abstracts are in public domain, and the reviews are willingly publishing them. For the text of tha article, covered by copyright, not easily the big rewievs are giving the permission to copy it for free. Generally almost all of the journals I have quoted are hosted in some big databases (which I browse with the password which is gave to us who teach in University) and they offer the full article to who is not having abonement to the database not freely.
It would be a violation of copyrights the publishing here articles without permission. On the contrary if someone of us is having a own copy for personal use, he can send it freely by private mail to other member of the site who needs it, but just for personal use.

If there is no copyright on the work, there aren't problem to publish it.

For example I' just now reading a copy if D.Hooker Handbook of the New Zealand flora : a systematic description of the native plants of New Zealand, published in London in 1867...It could be copied here (I have a scanned microfilm) but I guess it is too big in size to be published in this site.

Also I have almost all the work of J.Gould in original edition, all scanned, including: Handbook of Birds of Australia and the VI volumes of the Birds of Papua New Guinea and adiacent islands. If soemone is interested, I will happily send a CD copy with all such books, of course for free. Is a way of "freeware" let's say...)

Ciao!
Francesco
Back to top
Tanygnathus
Member
Member


Joined: May 09, 2005
Posts: 11

PostPosted: Fri May 13, 2005 12:03 pm    Post subject:

P.S. I forgot to tell that i have some scanned copy of the articles I mentioned above. After coming back from the "ornithological trip" of the week-end I will post the list of which I have, and I shall be happy to send them by private mail for private useto people who wish to read them.

With the best greetings, Francesco
Back to top
Allen
Foundation Member
Foundation Member


Joined: Oct 14, 2004
Posts: 269

PostPosted: Sat May 14, 2005 7:17 pm    Post subject:

Hope you have a good trip over the week-end and see lots of birds and have better weather than we are expecting here.
Back to top
Steptoe
Site Admin
Site Admin


Joined: Oct 06, 2004
Posts: 4529

PostPosted: Tue May 17, 2005 6:53 pm    Post subject:

Trip info moved to Discussion
Admin.

_________________
My Spelling is Not Incorrect...It's 'Creative'
Back to top
Apocrypha
Snr Member
Snr Member


Joined: Oct 10, 2004
Posts: 61

PostPosted: Sun May 22, 2005 5:13 pm    Post subject:

Appreciated!

and yes back from field (South Island - rather large island trip).

Will review sometime, and search for some copies.

My kakariki article may be headed for Pacific Conservation Biology next. When I have a free moment.
Back to top
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic   Reply to topic    Kakariki, Care, Breeding, Ecology, and Conservation Forum Index -> Kakariki Reference All times are GMT + 13 Hours
Page 1 of 1
Copy Paste Text Here to Translate
Select Language and Translate

 
Jump to:  
You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum
You cannot attach files in this forum
You can download files in this forum


Powered by PHPBulletinBoard © 2001-2008 phpBulletinBoard Group
PHPBulletinBoard port based on Tom Nitzschner's PHPBulletinBoard upgraded to PHPBulletinBoard 2.0.7
Standalone Developed Tested by: ChatServ, mikem,
and Paul Laudanski (aka Zhen-Xjell).

by Nuke Cops © 2004




All Logos and Trademarks in this site are Property of their Respective Owners.
Statements and Views Expressed on this web site Represent the Opinions of the Authors.
Neither this Site or the Publishers of this Site Assume Any Liability for the Information Contained Herein.
ANY CONTENT from this Site can only be DISTRIBUTED/PUBLISHED/USED ELSEWHERE with PRIOR WRITTEN PERMISSION
ALL COMMENTS/PICTURES/CONTENT are the PROPERTY of the CONTRIBUTORS and © 2004/2015 by WWW.KAKARIKI.NET

Web site engine's code is Copyright © 2003 by NukePortal. All Rights Reserved. NukePortal is Free Software released under the GNU/GPL license.
Page Generation: 0.835 Seconds