Posted: Thu Jan 05, 2006 11:33 pm Post subject: Forbes' parakeet references
For people interested in this species, below are the references I am aware of:
Taylor RH (1975) Some ideas on speciation in New Zealand parakeets. Notornis, 22, 110-121.
Triggs SJ, Daugherty CH (1996) Conservation and genetics of New Zealand parakeets. Bird Conservation International, 6, 89-101.
Boon WM, Kearvell JC, Daugherty CH, Chambers GK (2000) Molecular systematics of New Zealand Cyanoramphus parakeets: Conservation of the Orange-fronted and Forbes' parakeets. Bird Conservation International, 10, 211-239.
Ballantyne KN, Chan C-H, Chambers GK (2004) A PCR-RFLP based method for assigning mitochondrial control region haplogroups in hybridizing Chatham Islands Cyanormphus parakeets. New Zealand Natural Sciences, 29, 33-38.
Chan C-H, Ballantyne KN, Aikman H, Daugherty CH, Chambers GK (2005) Hybridisation of Forbes' parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) in the Chatham Islands: A molecular geneticist's view. Notornis, 52, 173-174.
Chan C-H, Ballantyne KN, Lambert DM, Chambers GK (2005) Characterization of variable microsatellite loci in Forbes' parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) and their use in other parrots. Conservation Genetics, 6, 651-654.
Chan C-H, Ballantyne KN, Aikman H, Fastier D, Daugherty CH, Chambers GK (2006) Genetic analysis of interspecific hybridisation in the world's only Forbes' parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) natural population. Conservation Genetics, 7, 493-506.
Greene TC (2000) Forbes' parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) population on Mangere Island, Chatham Islands. Conservation Advisory Science Notes 319. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Boon WM, Kearvell JC, Daugherty CH, Chambers GK (2001) Molecular systematics and conservation of kakariki (Cyanoramphus spp.): Science for Conservation 176. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Chan C-H, Ballantyne KN, Aikman H, Daugherty CH, Chambers GK (2006) Conservation genetics of the Forbes' parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) on Mangere Island, Chatham Islands. DOC Research & Development Series 254. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Nixon AJ (1982) Aspects of the ecology and morphology of Cyanoramphus parakeets and hybrids from Mangere Island, Chatham Islands. MSc Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
Boon WM (2000) Molecular systematics and conservation of the Cyanoramphus parakeet complex and the evolution of parrots. PhD Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
Ballantyne KN (2003) A population level analysis of Cyanoramphus forbesi mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. BSc(Hons) Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
Chan C-H (2006) Conservation genetics and hybridisation of the Forbes' parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) in the Chatham Islands. PhD Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
Last edited by Cchan on Sun Sep 16, 2007 2:01 am; edited 5 times in total
Welcome to our Community. And it is refreshing to have someone active from the scientific research Field.
Feel free to make comments and instigate discussions on Kakariki.
If u disagree or wish to correct misconceptions with us experienced amateurs please do so.
Any of the papers above that u may think is of some value to us, and we are able to publish without infringing copyrights, could you submit or forward by email to Admin (link top left of the page)
Also how much does it cost and where to get DNA tests done to establish purity of our birds and can this show or indicate how much inbreeding their maybe?
Ultimately we would like to establish a network of private breeders of reds and yellows to supply DoC and Conservation Trusts. To do so we would need to establish accurately purity of breeding stock. DNA is far simpler than watching generations of our stock for signs of hybridisation throw backs
Again and look forward to your input. _________________ My Spelling is Not Incorrect...It's 'Creative'
I'm sure from a scientist's point of view he'd suggest that using DNA methods is 'complicated', seeing as science can never know if it is 100% accurate.
Up at Russell (Bay of Islands) a group used DNA tests but these weren't acceptable (I believe) for various reasons of not being foolproof.
To prove purity of birds you'd need a reference sample (e.g. local 'pure' birds). Gets even more complicated if there is 'natural' hybridisation in that wild population. Becomes a philosophical-academic issue of what is natural and does it really matter? Which was what Chan's talk at OSNZ (Ornithological Society of New Zealand) suggested (though he should correct me if I'm out of line).
Watching generations of stock may be easier than DNA methods.
Chan - can you forward me your 'in press' Consv Gen papers and electronic versions of the 3 VUW theses you list (if they exist). I attempt to have a kakariki library (see downloads on this site), and have a kakariki paper in press at the moment myself I could definitely cite yours in. firstname.lastname@example.org (I was the rat/statistics guy at OSNZ).
Personally, I think the birds in the gallery seem to be more than hybrids. Hybridisation has frequently been used as a convenient explanation to abnormal plumage patterns where two or more species coexist. Unless the other species on the island has yellow feathers on the wings, it seems an mutation in the normal plumage pattern is a better explanation for the yellow patches seen on the wings. However, hybridisation cannot be ruled out. Very little is known about the genetics of plumage colours, so at this stage it is difficult to judge which is the main cause. It is also possible that hybridisation leads to the expression of yellow feathers where in normal Red-crowns it is suppressed. Given that all Cyanoramphus parakeets can potentially hybridise, it is a very difficult group to manage.
At present, DNA test is only 100% accurate on the maternal lineage (mitochondrial DNA; see Boon et al. 2001). To find out the father is more difficult as the microsatellite method need a reasonably large reference pure individuals (Apocrypha: you are correct ; we only have Forbes' and CI Red-crowns done, but these are not very useful for your purpose), and there is no guarentee that the particular bird you want to test can resolve. So I wouldn't recommend those tests especially if the money comes from your own wallet! It cost about $4 in chemicals to extract DNA from a few feathers to start with!
Due to copyright restrictions, I cannot distribute those Conservation Genetics articles. The smaller 2005 one is released on the publisher's website (http://www.springeronline.com) today with page numbers (updated in my original post). I have made my thesis into a pdf file which I'll e-mail to you (see appendix 2.3 and 3.3 for the manuscripts of the 2 Conservation Genetics papers). The others don't have electronic versions as far as I know (I have problems finding Kaye Ballantyne's hard copy, so good luck on that).
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